0462795 - November 10, 1891 - Method of producing rain-fall
1338343A - April 27, 1920 - Process And Apparatus For The Production
of Intense Artificial Clouds, Fogs, or Mists
1665267 - April 10, 1928 - Process of Producing Artificial Fogs
1928963 - October 3, 1933 - Electrical System And Method - the invention aims to dissolve clouds and fogs, to produce rain, and otherwise change atmospheric conditions, and to scatter particles in a charged condition for other purposes also.
1957075 - May 1, 1934 - Airplane Spray Equipment
2480967 - September 6, 1949 - Aerial Discharge Device
2570867A - October 9, 1951 - Method of Crystal Formation and Precipitation. - the present invention comprises a process whereby crystallization is caused in supersaturated vapor-containing gases and aerosols of supercooled liquid droplets. It relates in particular to the development of ice crystals in aerosols comprising supercooled water droplets as, for example, supercooled natural atmospheric clouds in which snow crystals do not form even though the clouds have assumed a temperature below C. and even as low as 5 C. or 38 C.
2582678A - June 15, 1952 - Material Disseminating Apparatus For Airplanes
2614083A - October 14, 1952 - Metal Chloride Screening Smoke Mixture
2730402 - January 10, 1956 - Controllable Dispersal Device
2881335 - April 7, 1959 - Generation of Electrical Fields (Diagram in right column)
US2903188A - August 8 1959 - Control of tropical cyclone formation - Abstract not given. You can see description by clicking link.
2908442 - October 13, 1959 - Method For Dispersing Natural Atmospheric
Fogs And Clouds - relates to weather control and more particularly relates to a method of dispersing natural atmospheric fogs and clouds, as well as causing precipitation therefrom and is a continuation-in-part of my copending applications, Serial No. 372,278, filed August 4,
2963975 - December 13, 1960 - Cloud Seeding Carbon Dioxide Bullet- This invention relates to cloud seeding bullets, and more particularly to a cloud seeding bullet of the type wherein liquid carbon dioxide under pressure is released through one or more metering holes at some time after it leaves the gun from which it is fired.
2986360 - May 30, 1962 - Aerial Insecticide Dusting Device
3126155 - March 24, 1964 - Silver Iodide Cloud Seeding Generator - A SILVER IODIDE CLOUD SEEDING GENERATOR COMPRISING A HOUSING SECURED TO THE EXTERIOR SURFACE OF AN AIRCRAFT ON A WING TIP
3127107 - March 31, 1964 - Generation of Ice-Nucleating Crystals - Ice-nucleating crystals, in particular silver iodide crystals, have heretofore been generated for introduction into clouds by means of special generators located on the ground or attached to aircraft.
3131131 - April 28, 1964 - Electrostatic Mixing in Microbial Conversions - Each jetstream then is unipolar and is highly charged. For example, droplets so formed carry a mean charge of 1600 electrostatic units (le. s.u.=1.59 10- coulombs). Two desirable eifects result: (1) there results a dispersion which is finer and'more uniform than can be obtained by a mere mechanical subdivision with optimum increase in surface area and reactivity and (2) the aerosol emitted from a jet is stabilized because the like charges on adjoining droplets being emitted eifect a movement away from the droplets so that they stay apart, uncoalesced,
3234357 - February 8, 1966 - Electrically Heated Smoke Producing Device
3274035 - September 20, 1966 - Metallic Composition For Production of
3300721 - January 24, 1967 - Means For Communication Through a Layer
of Ionized Gases -
AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE MODULATOR COMPRISING: A LAYER OF IONIZED GASES WHICH REFLECTS A PART OF ANY ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY THAT IS DIRECTED INTO IT; MEANS FOR APPLYING AN UNMODULATED MAGNETIC FIELD TO SAID LAYER OF IONIZED GASES; MEANS FOR MODULATING SAID MAGNETIC FIELD; MEANS FOR GENERATING AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE HAVING A CONSTANT FREQUENCY EQUAL TO THE GYROFREQUENCY OF SAID UNMODULATED MAGNETIC FIELD; AND MEANS FOR TRANSMITTING SAID ELECTRO
3313487 - April 11, 1967 - Cloud Seeding Apparatus
3338476 - August 29, 1967 - Heating Device For Use With Aerosol Containers
3410489 - November 12, 1968 - Automatically Adjustable Airfoil Spray
System With Pump - automatically adjustable airfoil spray system with pump so constructed that the position of the spray boom can be changed automatically in accordance with changes in wind direction.
3429507 - February 25, 1969 - Rainmaker
3432208A -March 11, 1969 -
Fluidized Particle Dispenser
3441214 - April 29, 1969 - Method And Apparatus For Seeding Clouds - An apparatus and method for seeding clouds from an alrcraft by means of a package including an explosive generator containing silver iodide. The package also includes a time fuse attached at one end to an igniter and at the other end to a detonator for setting off the fuse cord containing the silver iodide at the required height.
3456880 - July 22, 1969 - Method Of Producing Precipitation From The
Atmosphere = In the present invention a large venturi passage carried by an airborne device such as a dirigi'ble, conventional airplane, or lighter than air balloon has moisture-laden atmosphere impelled at high velocity through its length. Condensation is precipitated in the passing air by temporary reduction in pressure and temperature occurring at and after the constriction of the passage. Further, proximate to the constriction of the venturi, 'artiiicial cooling means of relatively high intensity injected into the large volumes of passing atmosphere creates a substantial temperature reduction below ambient
3518670 June 30, 1970 - Artificial Ion Cloud - As a material for producing an artificial ion cloud in the stratosphere, ablative coated microspheres of a compound selected from the class consisting of lithium hydride, sodium hydride, butyl lithium or ethyl cesium.
3534906 - October 20, 1970 - Control of Atmospheric Particles - This invention relates to a method for the control of atmospheric moisture and more particularly relates to a method for fog abatement and the modification of clouds.
3545677 - December 8, 1970 - Method of Cloud Seeding
3564253 - February 16, 1971 - System And Method For Irradiation Of Planet
Surface Areas - A system and method for generalized irradiation of relatively large surface areas of a planet, such as the earth, the moon, etc. for illumination, heating, weather control, etc., employing one or more planet-orbiting self-erecting planar-reflector satellites controlled in attitude and orbit position to reflect energy from the sun to a desired area on the planet''s surface.
3587966 - June 28, 1971 - Freezing Nucleation = A PROCESS OF NUCLEATING CRYSTALLIATION OF A HYDROGEN-BONDING CRYSTAL FROM A CLOUD OR VAPOR MEDIUM, OR A FREEZING NUCLEANT CONSISTING OF AN INSOLUBLE OXIDE SUBSTRATE OF SUITABLE PARTICLE SIZES BURNED TOGETHER WITH SODIUM OR POTASSIUM CHLORIDE OR IODATE.
3601312 - August 24, 1971 - Methods of Increasing The Likelihood oF Precipatation
By The Artificial Introduction Of Sea Water Vapor Into The Atmosphere
Winward Of An Air Lift Region = method of producing fresh water utilizing modification of air mass conditions by injecting sea water into solar-heated air to evaporate sea water into the atmosphere and increase the air water vapor content, and thereby greatly increase the capacity of the so modified air mass for absorbing the available radiant energy for warming the air by solar and terrestial radiant energy to increase the ability of the air to absorb increased quantities of water vapor and ambient temperature, and thereafter lift the treated air to sufficient altitudes to produce convective instability, cumuliform clouds and precipitation.
3608820 - September 20, 1971 - Treatment of Atmospheric Conditions by
Intermittent Dispensing of Materials Therein
3608810 - September 28, 1971 - Methods of Treating Atmospheric Conditions - including dispensing in the atmosphere surfactants, water-soluble polyelectrolytes or mixtures thereof, methods of dispersing fog by dispensing fog coalescent materials around an unstable spot in the fog and by dispensing fog-coalescent materials in a substantially straight path through an area to be cleared, and methods of increasing rain by dispensing surfactants, water-soluble polyelectrolytes or mixtures thereof around an unstable spot in a cloud.
3613992 - October 19, 1971 - Weather Modification Method - provides a method for producing rain or snow from natural atmospheric clouds using seeding agents characterized by a high solubility in water and a large endothermic heat of solution in water. Typical examples of materials suitable for use in practicing this invention are urea, potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, and ammonium nitrate. Laboratory experiments have shown urea to be effective in producing ice crystals in a vapor cloud having a temperature as high as +6* C. In field experiments, urea has been observed to cause snow showers in supercooled clouds.
3666176 - March 3, 1972 - Solar Temperature Inversion Device - A cloud cover trapping air pollutants over an affected region is dispersed by anchored balloons positioned closely above the cloud cover adjacent to the cloud trap. Heat radiated from the balloons produces a thermal updraft to change the characteristics of the clouds and subject them to the dispersal effects of air currents and wind.
3677840 - July 18, 1972 - Pyrotechnics Comprising Oxide of Silver For
Weather Modification Use - A pyrotechnic composition comprising lead iodate, alkali iodate, boron, and epoxy resin which upon combustion generates a lead based smoke which can be used for artificial weather modification.
3722183 - March 27, 1973 - Device For Clearing Impurities From The Atmosphere - Oppositely charged electrode cones or electrode cylinders are adjustably supported so that one cone or cylinder is within the other cone or cylinder but spaced therefrom, whereby air currents attracted to and flowing through the electrostatic field have particles of impurity acquire the charge of one of the electrodes and are repelled to be collected on and adhere to the other electrode cone or cylinder. Specifically the cones are made of fiberglass and the adjacent faces of the cones are coated with fiberglass wool. The cylinders may be of larger diameter and may be made of steel.
3785557 - January 15, 1974 - Cloud Seeding System - A cloud seeding system comprising a solid propellant rocket motor boosted vehicle and means for launching the vehicle for transporting cloud seeding material to clouds for increasing precipitation and/or suppressing hail growth. The vehicle comprises a pyrotechnical booster element and a seeding material carrier or dart element, automatically separable from each other, the booster element being provided with an automatically releasable parachute or other means for retarding the speed of fallout consisting of the booster motor and an interstage coupling between the two elements released after burnout of the booster and separation of the two elements. Launching means are provided for directing the trajectory of the motor boosted vehicle.
3795626 - March 5, 1974 - Weather Modification Process - CONDENSATION PRODUCTS OF NAPTHALENE SULFONIC ACIDS AND ALIPHATIC ALDEHYDES OF FURFURAL OR COMPOUNDS CAPABLE OF SETTING FREE SUCH ALDEHYDES ARE EFFECTIVE IN INFLUENCING THE WEATHER, I.E. THEY REMOVE FOG OR CLOUDS OR CAUSE RAIN.
3808595 - April 30, 1974 - Chaff Dispensing System - The embodiments of the chaff dispensing system disclosed in the present application use a slurry of Freon and chaff particles and thus permits hydraulic and pneumatic principles to be readily employed to ease the handling and dispensing of the chaff. The flow rate of the slurry can be precisely controlled to obtain chaff clouds of desired densities. Once the slurry is dispensed into the atomsphere at altitude, the highly volatile Freon vaporizes so that it does not adversely affect the formation of a cloud by the chaff particles.
3835059 - September 10, 1974 - Methods of Generating Ice Nuclei Smoke
Particles For Weather Modification And Apparatus - CE-NUCLEI SMOKE PARTICLES ARE PRODUCED THROUGH CONTACT OF AN ORGANIC ICE-NICLEI COMPOUND WITH SUPERHEATED STEAM UNDER PROCESS FOLLOWED BY INTERNAL ADIABATIC AND ISENTROPIC EXPANSION USING A SUPERSONIC NOZZLE.
3877642 - April 15, 1975 - Freezing Nucleant - A solid solution of silver iodide and cuprous iodide for the purpose of more effectively nucleating the formation of ice at higher temperatures than the nuclei in the environment is provided. These compounds may be dispersed into the atmosphere with similar equipment to that used for the dispersal of silver iodide, and the resultant aerosol is equal to or superior to silver iodide for the purpose of nucleating clouds while being less toxic, less expensive and less susceptible to photodeactivation by sunlight than pure silver iodide.
3882393 - May 6, 1975 - Communications System Utilizing Modulation of The Characteristic Polarization
of The Ionosphere
3899129 - August 12, 1975 - Apparatus for generating ice nuclei smoke
particles for weather modification - Ice-nuclei smoke particles are produced through contact of an organic ice-nuclei compound with superheated steam under pressure, followed by internal adiabatic and isentropic expansion using a supersonic nozzle.
3899144 - August 12, 1975 - Powder contrail generation Abstract: Powder
Contrail Generation (PDF) Filing date: Jul 22, 1974 Abstract: Light scattering
pigment powder particles, surface treated to minimize interparticle cohesive
forces, are dispensed from a jet mill deagglomerator as separate single
particles to produce a powder contrail having maximum visibility or radiation
scattering ability for a given weight material.
3915379A - October 28 1975 - Method of controlling weather - A pyrotechnic formulation for use in weather modification comprising a fuel and an oxidizer and a mixture of a metal iodate and an alkali iodate. Upon combustion metal iodide and alkali iodide are generated as mixtures and complexes which show ice nuclei activity at from -5* to -20* C. depending on the molar range of metal iodide to alkali iodide.
3940059 - February 24, 1976 - Method For Fog Dispersion - A method of dispersing warm fog by forming a hygroscopic solution composedf urea and ammonium nitrate in water and spraying said solution into the fog cloud to be treated.
3940060 - February 24, 1976 - Vortex Ring Generator - A vortex generator including a heat source in the base of a cylindrical member with a circular ringwing in the shape of an airfoil which is lifted upward and then impulsively released to move rapidly downward and thus generate a vortex behind it. The vorticity in the core of the vortex is highly concentrated and moves rapidly upward through cloud cover. A strong light in the center of the vortex will shine to great heights making it especially useful as an airport beacon or the like. When the invention is used with a chimney, the effluents therein are caused to proceed rapidly upward through atmospheric obstacles such as thermal inversions which have been cleared by the action of the vortex.
3990987 - November 9,1976 - Smoke Generator - A smoke generator is disclosed which is particularly suitable for mounting on the wing tips of an aircraft and for conducting airflow studies. The device includes a network of thermally insulated tubes for carrying a fluid which is used to produce smoke. The fluid, which need not be combustible, is heated above its vaporization temperature by electric current which is passed through the fluid conduit tubes, so that the tubes serve both as fluid conduits and resistance heating elements. Fluid supply and monitoring systems and electrical control systems are also disclosed.
3994437 - November 30, 1976 - Broadcast dissemination of trace quantities
of biologically active chemicals - A method and apparatus are provided for evenly disseminating by broadcast techniques trace quantities of biologically active chemicals such as nutrients, insecticides, fungicides, growth regulators and the like. The biologically active chemical is encapsulated in a microdispenser such as a filamentary conduit of regulated cross-section and length. The filled microdispensers are then metered into a moving carrier fluid stream, preferably air, and the carrier fluid containing the microdispensers is then evenly dispensed throughout the area. In an alternate preferred embodiment, the microdispensers are coated with a second material which may be either another biologically active material or a sticker for attaching the microdispenser to living organisms such as plants or animals. The method and apparatus is also applicable to biologically active chemicals contained in laminated microdispenser structures for dissemination and release.
RE29,142 - February 22, 1977 - Reissue of: 03630950 - Combustible compositions
for generating aerosols, particularly suitable for cloud modification
and weather control and aerosolization process - A combustible composition for generating aerosols for the control and modification of weather conditions consisting of a readily oxidizable substance selected from the group consisting of aluminum, magnesium, alkali-metals and alkaline earth metals; an oxidizing agent selected from the groups consisting of:
(a) sulphur and sulphur yielding compounds; and
(b) organic and inorganic nitrates, alkali-metal and ammonium chlorates and perchlorates;
The molar ratio of the oxidizable substance to the oxidizing agent being between 1.5:1 and 3.5:1 and a stable hygroscopic solid which does not directly participate in the combustion process of the combustible composition, said hygroscopic solid being present in an amount up to 40% of the total weight of the combustible composition, the oxidizable substance, the oxidizing agent and the hygroscopic substance having a particle size in the range of from -140 to +270 mesh, and a primer initiating the combustion of said composition whereby during combustion, a finely dispersed aerosol smoke consisting of moderately hygroscopic condensation nuclei, and a non-hygroscopic gas are simultaneously evolved, said gas acting to disperse said nuclei
4031828A - Jun 28, 1977 - Pressurized chaff canister - A self pressurizing chaff canister having a frangible enclosure containing a chaff matrix and having an end cap with a spring loaded fracture pin, and gas ports, held in a case by shear pins, the case in turn is secured in a housing by a threaded electrical squib whereupon firing of the squib will shear the pins, force the enclosure from the case while simultaneously pressurizing the enclosure, whereupon ejection of the enclosure from the case will cause the fracture pin to strike the case at which time the chaff be appropriately disbursed.
4035726A - July 12, 1977 - Method of controlling and/or improving high-latitude
and other communications or radio wave surveillance systems by partial
control of radio wave et al - There is disclosed a method of controlling high-latitude communications by cold plasma injection in the distant magnetosphere, and to thereby control the ionospheric and or magnetospheric medium through which the waves are to be propagated.
4042196 - August 16, 1977 - Method and apparatus for triggering a substantial
change in earth characteristics and measuring earth changes
US4063515 - Dec 20, 1977 - Dispersive subprojectiles
for chaff cartridges - A chaff cartridge is made up of a plurality of chaff interpackets contained in subprojectiles. The subprojectiles are each provided with fins and the fins of each subprojectile in a chaff cartridge provide a different drag to cause the spacing out of the subprojectiles. The fins, additionally, cause the subprojectiles to rotate and thereby radially disperse the chaff.
4092383A - May 30 1978 - Modification of ballistic properties of HMX by spray drying - The technique of "spray drying" is well known. For example, it is commonly used in the weather modification field. In that field, drops of solutions of weather modification material are sprayed into the air whereupon the solvent evaporates and fine crystals of the weather modification material form to float down through the air and provide condensation nuclei.
4096005 - June 20, 1978 - Pyrotechnic Cloud Seeding Composition - A pyrotechnic cloud seeding composition comprising from about 60 to about 85 weight percent silver iodate, from about 10 to about 40 weight percent of a fuel from the class consisting of aluminium and magnesium, from about 5 to about 15 weight percent binder, and from about 0.1 to about 10 percent halogenated organic compound having a melting point of at least about 50° C. One illustrative compound is hexachlorobenzene.
US4129078 - Dec 12, 1978 Dispersive subprojectiles
for chaff cartridges - A chaff cartridge is made up of a plurality of chaff interpackets contained in subprojectiles. The subprojectiles are each provided with fins and the fins of each subprojectile in a chaff cartridge provide a different drag to cause the spacing out of the subprojectiles. The fins, additionally, cause the subprojectiles to rotate and thereby radially disperse the chaff.
4129252 - December 12, 1978 - Method and apparatus for production of seeding materials - A method and apparatus is provided for production of ice nuclei by generation of homogenous nuclei in nozzle or orifice expansions. The homogeneous nuclei are formed in the rapid cooling of vapors by rapid expansion through a supersonic nozzle or an orifice. These nuclei then serve as seeding materials for formation of ice.
A preferred method of carrying out the invention includes heating a volatile compound in a closed chamber to form a vapor, pressurizing the chamber with nitrogen gas and controllably releasing the resulting nitrogen gas-vapor combination through a nozzle or orifice in supersonic flow.
4141274 - February 27, 1979 - Weather modification automatic cartridge
dispenser - A weather modification cartridge dispenser for automatically igniting and spensing pyrotechnic weather modification rounds wherein the dispenser is basically a motor driven automatic spring powered gun.
4167008 - September 4, 1979 - Fluid bed chaff dispenser - The dispensing of the chaff fibers takes place in two distinct steps. Initially, a mixture of chaff and fluidization media is delivered to a fluidization chamber. Bleed air from the jet engines is caused to flow through the mixture of chaff and fluidization media to thereby cause the chaff fibers to churn and become separated in the fluidization chamber. Valves located at the ends of the fluidization chamber open in response to pilot or onboard ECM system activation to dispense the pre-separated chaff fibers.
US4175469 - Nov 27, 1979 - Centrifugal aerosol dispenser assembly - centrifugal aerosol dispenser assembly capable of dispersing a cloud of particulate aerosol material in a predetermined geometrical configuration. The dispenser assembly is formed of two parts, a mount and a dispenser. An ejector mechanism having a portion thereof on said mount and a portion thereof on said dispenser expels the dispenser from said mount with a spin motion. A plurality of dispensing compartments located within the dispenser contains the particulate material therein, and, at a predetermined time after ejection thereof releases its contents in a predetermined geometrical configuration due to the centrifugal forces acting thereon.
4206396A - June 3 1980 - Charged aerosol generator with uni-electrode source - This invention relates to novel charged aerosol sources for diverse applications in Heat/Electric Power Generation, weather modification, airport fog clearance, dispersed chemical reactions, and other uses; and in particular, to a Wind/Electric Power Generator deriving electric power from wind power directly without moving mechanical parts through the medium of charged water droplets introduced into the airstream from a charging electrode, the charged droplets eventually discharging to ground, the electrical load being connected between the charging electrode and ground to complete the circuit. The wind/electric power is converted by an isobaric electrothermodynamic process occurring in the space charge field produced by the charged droplets, which are efficiently produced by novel charging devices on the charging electrode. The Wind/Electric Power Generator can be fabricated to extend across large areas of windstream to generate large electric power output at high voltage, and means are described for its conversion to standard 60 Hz, 110 V power.
US4333402 - Jun 8, 1982- Arrangement for launching interference
material - A projectile (1) containing particles of interference material is fired pneumatically from a launching tube (2). Compressed air, which is supplied to the launching tube and acts on the rear face of the projectile during firing, is conducted both to a loading chamber (19) wherein the air pressure is maintained even after the projectile has left the firing tube, and also via the loading chamber to an expansion chamber (20) in which, after a specific time-lag corresponding with a certain launch height on the trajectory of the projectile, an over-pressure builds up which causes the expansion of the chamber to be initiated with simultaneous expulsion of the interference material from the projectile. The compressed air may also be conducted to the chamber (10) in the projectile wherein the interference material is accommodated, tightly packed, in order to enhance the dispersion thereof.
4347284 - August 31, 1982 - White cover sheet material capable of reflecting
4362271 - December 7, 1982 - Procedure for the artificial modification
of atmospheric precipitation as well as compounds with a dimethyl sulfoxide
base for use in carrying out said procedure - A process for artificially modifying atmospheric precipitation wherein a liquid composition containing dimethyl sulfoxide as the principal ingredient is dispersed into the atmosphere from a container in microdroplet form having an average diameter ranging from 1 to 10 microns.
4402480 - September 6, 1983 - Atmosphere modification satellite - The Atmosphere Modification Satellite is intended to be the beginning of a possible world-wide network of satellites designed to improve Earth through application of techniques and monitoring resulting in atmosphere modification. Energy sources of said satellite consist of: solar, electrical, energy particle beam(s), laser and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). At proper plane(s) of orbit, the satellite is capable of identifying target areas and administering "M-Probes" to monitor, sample and/or modify the atmosphere. There is no limit to the number of types of atmosphere modification the satellite will perform.
US4406227 - Sep 27, 1983 System for multistage, aerial dissemination
and rapid dispersion of preselected substances - A system for multistage aerial dispersion of materials or substances in mte form to provide an aerial array of interspaced clouds or cloud-like patterns of such materials or substances.
4412654 - November 1, 1983 - Laminar microjet atomizer and method of
aerial spraying of liquids - A laminar microjet atomizer and method of aerial spraying involve the use of a streamlined body having a slot in the trailing edge thereof to afford a quiescent zone within the wing and into which liquid for spraying is introduced. The liquid flows from a source through a small diameter orifice having a discharge end disposed in the quiet zone well upstream of the trailing edge. The liquid released into the quiet zone in the slot forms drops characteristic of laminar flow. Those drops then flow from the slot at the trailing edge of the streamlined body and discharge into the slipstream for free distribution.
4415265 - November 15, 1983 - Method and apparatus for aerosol particle
absorption spectroscopy - A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.
US4444117 - Apr 24, 1984 - Stacked tube submunition
dispenser - A stacked tube submunitions dispenser (11) comprises an array (15) of nested launch tube clusters (23) disposed within a dispenser envelope (19). Each cluster (23) includes a plurality of fixed launch tubes (17) uniformly arranged around the central axis of the envelope (19) so that the angle between adjacent launch tubes (17) of a cluster (23) is substantially equal. The launch tubes (17) extend rearwardly and outwardly from the central axis from the envelope (19) in a substantially conical configuration. Each launch tube (17) includes a guide surface (33) for supporting a submunition (35) in a stowed position, a guide surface (37) for guiding the submunition during a dispensing event; and means for dispensing (39, 41) the submunition. Additionally, each launch tube includes a jettisonable aerodynamic cover (21) which provides the envelope (19) with a clean aerodynamic configuration. An additional volume (43) is available rearward of the submunition (35) but inside the envelope
4475927 - October 9, 1984 - Bipolar Fog Abatement System - A method and system for the abatement of fog in a designated air space over an aircraft approach zone and runway, consisting of gapped air jets laden with electrically charged droplets of low mobility, a ground corona guard in the form of a shallow water-and-oil basin, and a charged-collector-drops emitting device on the ground, arranged in such a manner that the low-mobility charged droplets blown aloft by the air jets form a virtual electrode suspended at appropriate height above the ground, toward which the oppositely charged high-mobility collector drops move, thereby collecting the neutral fog drops in their paths. The perforation ratio of the gapped air jet array is chosen such that the wind flux which penetrates the jet array is substantially equal to the entrainment flux at the lee side of the jets, thereby providing for a virtual canopy over the spatial region in which the fog is to be abated. A corona guard prevents neutralization of the collective electric field set up by the charged droplets blown aloft by the air jets, and also prevents premature neutralization of these droplets.
US4586439 - May 6, 1986 - Cartridge
for launching decoys - The invention relates to a cartridge (1) for launching decoy material, for example chaff. The cartridge (1) contains several cassettes (11, 12, 13, 14), each cassette containing several payloads (15) with chaff or other passive and active decoys. An electronic ignition signal device (5) ensures that the payloads (15) and the cassettes (11, 12, 13, 14) may be launched in an arbitrary sequence. By means of the invention a compact cartridge is obtained which may contain a great number of payloads (10) and which has a high reliability.
4600147 - July 15, 1986 - Liquid propane generator for cloud seeding
apparatus - Apparatus is provided for release of liquid propane from the holding chamber of a cloud-seeding rocket. The invention includes a liquid propane-filled bag within the chamber to expand and apply continuous pressure on the liquid propane in the chamber as it exits the chamber to be used for cloud-seeding purposes. A second aspect of the invention has a valve mechanism triggered by the ignition of a fuse to release a lever action. Admixing of small amounts of other gaseous compounds with the liquid propane enhances the ice nucleation of the liquid propane as it is discharged from the rocket.
US4704966 May 16, 1986 Nov 10, 1987 - Method of forming
IR smoke screen - A visual and infrared screening cloud is formed, comprised of an aerosol of fine metal flakes of copper composition, particularly brass, in which the flakes are of submicron thickness and multimicron lateral face dimensions. The cloud is formed by aerosoling a compact generally cohesive mass of copper composition metal flakes of submicron thickness and multimicron lateral dimensions through the action of explosively bursting such compact mass in the atmosphere at the desired cloud location.
US4704967 - Nov 10, 1987 - Method of assembly
of compacted particulates and explosive charge - A visual-and-infrared-screening cloud-forming product is made by forming a slurry of fine metal flakes of copper composition, particularly brass, of submicron thickness and multimicron lateral face dimensions, together with a volatile surface-wetting agent liquid, in the form of a liquid hydrocarbon, extruding and severing the extended slurry mass into small segments, drying the small segments, placing the small segments into a desired container shape and crushing such segments in place and into such shape, in particular in a hollow cylindrical shape. An HE explosive mass is inserted into the resulting compacted hollow cylinder, enabling bursting of the compacted mass.
4633714 - January 6, 1987 - Aerosol particle charge and size analyzer -
4643355 - February 17, 1987 - Method and apparatus for modification of
climatic conditions - A fog generator comprises a duct which is preferably vertical and very tall, an air mover for moving air down through the duct, an air director which includes a spout to direct the air emerging from the duct in a substantially horizontal stream in a chosen direction away from the duct and a fog generator which generates a fog into the moving air preferably after the air has left the spout. The spout is preferably rotatable in a horizontal plane. The invention enables a generated fog to be placed where required by the air stream in which it is entrained rather than relying on natural wind drift.
4653690 - March 31, 1987 - Method of producing cumulus clouds - The disruption of a thermal inversion and formation of cumulus clouds is duced by the ignition of a pyrotechnic composition containing an alkali earth metal. The combined heats of hydration, condensation and combustion of the composition disrupt the thermal layer allowing the passage of warm moist air into a zone of cooler air. The formation of cumulonimbus or cumulus clouds results.
4684063 - August 4, 1987 - Particulates generation and removal - A mixer/charger is used simultaneously to mix and electrically to charge a fluid or fluid-like material, and such electrically charged product is distributed into another fluid for various purposes. In one case the charged product may be mixed with particulate matter used to form smoke--an apppropriate polarity can cause repulsion of the smoke producing particulates thereby to reduce agglomeration and to maximize the suspension time of such particulates in surrounding environment. Alternatively, by distributing the charged product into particulate containing fluid and selecting the polarity such that such particulates tend to agglomerate, expeditious removal of such particulates can be accomplished. The charged product also may be used for distributing mist, distributing ionic material in air, e.g. for sense of wellbeing, and for seeding clouds.
4686605 - August 11, 1987 - Method and apparatus for altering a region
in the earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere - A method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region which normally exists above the earth's surface. The region is excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby increase its charged particle density. In one embodiment, circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is transmitted upward in a direction substantially parallel to and along a field line which extends through the region of plasma to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a frequency which excites electron cyclotron resonance to heat and accelerate the charged particles. This increase in energy can cause ionization of neutral particles which are then absorbed as part of the region thereby increasing the charged particle density of the region.
4704942 - November 10, 1987 - Charged Aerosol - A method of defending against a warfare cloud of toxic aerosol utilizes a charged defensive aerosol which is sprayed into the cloud. The defensive aerosol is made of a defensive agent which may be chemically or biologically active. The agent is sprayed through charged nozzles to impart a charge to the aerosol. The charge should be at least several thousands of volts with respect to ground so that particles of the defensive aerosol combine and coagulate with particles of the toxic aerosol to neutralize and cause rapid settling of the warfare cloud.
4712155 - December 8, 1987 - Method and apparatus for creating an artificial
electron cyclotron heating region of plasma - A method and apparatus altering a region of plasma that lies above the earth's surface at altitudes (e.g. below 50 kilometer) where the collison rate of the electrons in the plasma is originally greater than the cyclotron frequency of the electrons. First, artificial magnetic lines of force are established from the earth's surface by positioning a loop of cable at the earth's surface. An electrical current of sufficient amperage is passed through the cable which inherently generates the artificial magnetic field from the center of the loop. The field strength B on the artificial lines in the region of plasma to be altered is sufficient to increase the cyclotron frequency of the electrons in the plasma so that it will exceed the rate of collosion of the electrons. The plasma is then excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby further alter the plasma by transmitting circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation upward in a direction substantially parallel to and along the artificial field lines.
4744919 - May 17, 1988 - Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer - A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.
4836086 - June 6, 1989 - Apparatus and method for the mixing and diffusion
of warm and cold air for dissolving fog -
4948050A - August 14, 1990 - Liquid atomizing apparatus for aerial spraying - A rotary liquid spray atomizer for aerial spraying is driven by a variable speed motor, driven in turn by power from a variable speed AC generator. The generator is driven from a power take-off from the engine of the spraying aircraft, a drive assembly includes a device for controlling the speed of the generator relative to the speed of the engine. The particularly convenient drive assembly between the generator and the power take-off is a hydraulic motor, which drives the generator, driven by a hydraulic pump driven from the power take-off. The speed of the hydraulic motor can be controllably varied. Conveniently the AC motor is a synchronous motor.
4999637 - March 12, 1991 - Creation of artificial ionization clouds above
the earth - A method for forming a cloud of artificial ionization above the earth by initially heating the resident plasma at a desired altitude with electromagnetic radiation having a frequency approximately the same as that of the ambient plasma. As the plasma frequency increases due to heating, the radiation frequency is also increased until the final maintenance frequency is attained.
US5984239A - March 27, 1991 - Weather modification by artificial satellites: A Satellite Weather Modification System (SWMS) uses earth satellites to harness solar energy to modify the thermodynamics and composition of the earth's atmosphere. SWMS has three subsystems: The first subsystem includes a network of earth satellites called Satellite Engines (SEs) used to reflect solar energy and/or transform solar energy into other forms of energy beams discharged at specified locations. The media at these locations and the media through which the energy beams pass absorb these energies and change them into heat. The second subsystem includes a large network of Remote Sensing Devices (RSDs). These sensors are used to measure local media compositions, dynamic parameters and thermodynamic properties. Sensor measurements are fed back to the third subsystem, which includes a network of Ground Control Stations (GCSs). GCSs provide energy beam guidance by estimating each beam's characteristics and its aim point trajectory as functions of time. Integration of these three subsystems establishes a sensor feedback energy beam guidance and control loop. SWMS's weather modification applications include alteration of precipitation, reclaiming of wasteland, reducing damage by bad weather, and improving environment. Its non-weather related applications include supplying concentrated energy to electricity generating stations (solar, wind and hydro), high latitude greenhouse farms, and solar powered airplanes.
5003186 - March 26, 1991 - Stratospheric Welsbach seeding for reduction
of global warming - A method is described for reducing atmospheric or global warming resulting from the presence of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, i.e., from the greenhouse effect. Such gases are relatively transparent to sunshine, but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. The method incudes the step of seeding the layer of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere with particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity. Such materials include Welsbach materials and the oxides of metals which have high emissivity (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micron infrared wavelength regions.
5038664 - August 13, 1991 - Method for producing a shell of relativistic
particles at an altitude above the earths surface - A method for establishing a region of a high density, high energy plasma at an altitude of at least about 1500 kilometers above the earth's surface. Circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is transmitted at a first frequency substantially parallel to an earth's magnetic field line to excite electron cyclotron resonance heating in normally occurring plasma at an altitude of at least about 250 kilometers to generate a mirror force which lifts said plasma to said altitude of at least about 1500 kilometers. Heating is continued at a second frequency to expand the plasma to the apex of said field line whereupon at least some of the plasma is trapped and oscillates between mirror points on said lines. The plasma will be contained within adjacent field lines and will drift to form a shell of relativistic particles around a portion of the earth.
5041760 - August 20, 1991 - Method and apparatus for generating and utilizing
a compound plasma configuration - A method and apparatus for generating and utilizing a compound plasma configuration is disclosed. The plasma configuration includes a central toroidal plasma with electrical currents surrounded by a generally ellipsoidal mantle of ionized particles or electrically conducting matter. The preferred methods of forming this compound plasma configuration include the steps of forming a helical ionized path in a gaseous medium and simultaneously discharging a high potential through the ionized path to produce a helical or heliform current which collapses on itself to produce a toroidal current, or generating a toroidal plasmoid, supplying magnetic energy to the plasmoid, and applying fluid pressure external to the plasmoid. The apparatus of the present invention includes a pressure chamber wherein the compound plasma configuration can be isolated or compressed by fluid or other forms of mechanical or magnetic pressure. A multiple chamber reactor device is also disclosed, as are methods and using apparatuses for rising the compound plasma configuration in a number of diverse situations.
US5096467A - March 17 1992 - Artificial tornado generating mechanism and method of utilizing generated artificial tornados - (Patent doesn't state whether this is for creating weather or to be used for something else) - An array of parallel pipes, each having ports through which jet-like air streams exit, are arranged so that a peripherally directed air curtain is formed. The posts are shielded at both ends, and one end is provided with a chimney along a central axis of the air by which air or fluid is removed. By giving the air curtain a centrifugal force, a negative pressure is produced along a central core, and a spiral flow is produced, creating an artificial tornado.
5104069 - April 14, 1992 - Apparatus and method for ejecting matter from
an aircraft - A fluid ejector for discharging gases and fluids from an aircraft. The fluid ejector is fastened to an exterior surface of the aircraft and includes an air tube which is spaced apart from the exterior surface of the aircraft by a mast. Unwanted fluids and gases are evacuated from the aircraft through a conduit located inside the drain mast and are expelled from an outlet located in the side of the air tube. In this manner, the liquid or gases present at the outlet are discharged in a rearward direction away from the downstream portion of the aircraft by the airstream through the tube.
5174498 - December 29, 1992 - Cloud Seeding - Long-chain aliphatic alcohols are provided that induce nucleation of ice at temperatures within the range from -8° C. to 0° C., from supercooled water present as small drops and/or in the vapor state, and are useful for seeding supercooled clouds in order to augment rainfall.
5148173 - September 15, 1992 - Millimeter wave screening cloud and method - A millimeter wave screening cloud is formed comprised of an aerosol of fineibers of a carbon composition, in which the particles are of micron diameter and millimeter length. The cloud is formed by aerosolizing a compact mass of carbon composition fibers through the action of explosively bursting such compact mass in the atmosphere at the desired cloud location.
5286979 - February 15, 1994 - Process for absorbing ultraviolet radiation
using dispersed melanin - This invention is a process for absorbing ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere by dispersing melanin, its analogs, or derivatives into the atmosphere. By appropriate choice of melanin composition, size of melanin dispersoids, and their concentration, the melanin will absorb some quantity of ultraviolet radiation and thereby lessen its overall effect on the critters who would normally absorb such radiation.
US5322646A June 21 1994 - Simulated tornado humidifier - A system for humidifying air while generating a tornado-like air flow pattern highlighted by water aerosol is described. The system includes air flow devices which generate a circular tornado-like air flow, a water aerosol generator, and a means of injecting the water aerosol into the circular air pattern to produce a visible tornado. Air is blown parallel to and within two opposing parabolic plates, creating a circular flow pattern. Air is exhausted out the top of the device at the center point between the plates, creating an updraft. Water aerosol wafts into the bottom of the circular air flow, gets caught in the upwardly spinning air flow, and exits through the top of the device. A model of a tornado is created and maintained. Also, the water aerosol humidifies the air in the room as it exits the device. (It's said to be for a room, but can there be a larger version of this?)
5357865 - October 25, 1994 - Method of cloud seeding - A method of cloud seeding for precipitation enhancement comprises releasing hygroscopic seeding particles from a seeding flare 10. The particles are obtained by burning, in the flare, a pyrotechnic composition which includes, as an oxidizing agent, a compound selected from the group consisting in potassium chlorate and potassium perchlorate. The particles are allowed to enter a suitable cloud formation. The particles act as seeds or nuclei for precipitable water drop formation, thereby to enhance precipitation from the cloud formation.
5360162 - November 1, 1994 - Method and composition for precipitation
of atmospheric water - A method for precipitating atmospheric water by means of multicomponent aerosols, including iodide based complex multicomponent aerosol compositions. The compositions comprise a solid mass formed by a compacted mixture of silver iodide and the iodides, iodates, and periodates of alkali metals, lead, copper, barium; ammonia, barium chromate, and selected oxidizers such as ammonium perchlorate, and fuels such as poly-p-phenylene, phenol formaldehyde resin, epoxide resin, and shellac and mixtures thereof. The compositions, upon burning, produce an aerosol effective to promote atmospheric water precipitation.
5425413 - June 20, 1995 - Method to hinder the formation and to break-up
overhead atmospheric inversions, enhance ground level air circulation
and improve urban air quality - Disclosed is a method for hindering the formation and for penetrating and breaking-up overhead atmospheric inversions, enhancing ground level air circulation and, improving urban air quality and transporting ozone to the upper atmospheres by the use of waste heat, including combustion gases, rejected to the atmosphere during power generation.
5492274A - February 20 1996 - Method of and means for weather modification - Weather in the vicinity of a land mass such as a continental arid zone near, and usually eastward of a body of water is modified by preferably propelling a ship pulling a submerged body having plurality of vertically displaced foils having an angle of attack that effects an upward displacement to the water in response to the surface displacement of the ship. The upward displacement of the water moves cooler sub-surface water toward the surface thereby cooling the surface water and reducing its heat loss in the summer. As a result, the capacity of the water is increased and additional heat will be stored in the water as a consequence of the greater absorption of solar radiation thereby increasing winter storms and the amount of rainfall over the land mass during the winter.
5556029 - September 17, 1996 - Method of hydrometeor dissipation - A method of dissipating hydrometeors (clouds) that includes transmitting electromagnetic radiation (e.g., light energy, from the sun, for example) that is absorbed by water vapor into the cloud to be dissipated and continuing the transmission of such energy into the cloud until it dissipates. The source of electromagnetic radiation can be a large mirror located on the surface of the earth, that reflects sunlight into the cloud to be dissipated. In a still more specific embodiment of the invention, the wind speed, direction, cloud altitude and sun movement relative to the earth is tracked to determine the mirror orientation and tracking necessary to disperse a particular cloud or clouds. In addition, an array of earth-mounted mirrors could be utilized in a coordinated fashion to dissipate a group or larger volume of clouds.
5628455 - May 13, 1997 - Method and apparatus for modification of supercooled
fog - method an apparatus for reducing super cooled fog which involves the introduction of liquid carbon dioxide in a horizontal line along the ground under the fog from a moving vehicle.
5639441 - June 17, 1997 - Methods for fine particle formation - Methods and apparatuses are provided for forming fine particles of a desired substance comprising dissolving said substance in a fluid such as water to form a solution and mixing the solution with a second fluid such as supercritical carbon dioxide which becomes a gas upon rapid pressure release, and with which the first fluid is at least partially immiscible, and releasing the pressure to form an air-borne dispersion or aerosol comprising particles having an average diameter between about 0.1 and about 6.5 µm.
5762298 - June 9, 1998 - Use of artificial satellites in earth orbits
adaptively to modify the effect that solar radiation would otherwise have
on earth's weather - A Satellite Weather Modification System (SWMS) uses earth satellites to harness solar energy to modify the thermodynamics and composition of the earth's atmosphere. SWMS has three subsystems: The first subsystem includes a network of earth satellites called Satellite Engines (SEs) used to reflect solar energy and/or transform solar energy into other forms of energy beams discharged at specified locations. The media at these locations and the media through which the energy beams pass absorb these energies and change them into heat. The second subsystem includes a large network of Remote Sensing Devices (RSDs). These sensors are used to measure local media compositions, dynamic parameters and thermodynamic properties. Sensor measurements are fed back to the third subsystem, which includes a network of Ground Control Stations (GCSs). GCSs provide energy beam guidance by estimating each beam's characteristics and its aim point trajectory as functions of time. Integration of these three subsystems establishes a sensor feedback energy beam guidance and control loop. SWMS's weather modification applications include alteration of precipitation, reclaiming of wasteland, reducing damage by bad weather, and improving environment. Its non-weather related applications include supplying concentrated energy to electricity generating stations (solar, wind and hydro), high latitude greenhouse farms, and solar powered airplanes.
5912396 - June 15, 1999 - System and method for remediation of selected
atmospheric conditions - he system includes a platform assembly which includes a plurality of helium airships for support of an emitting electrode to produce a large amount of electrical charges, in the form of electrons, into the surrounding atmosphere. The electrons may be generated by various apparati, including field induced emission and ultraviolet induced emission and ionization. Also provided are a large bank of solar cells to produce the necessary power for the assembly and a propulsion system, either a propeller system or an ion engine. A positive electrode may also be included which collects the undesirable atmospheric elements, such as chlorine atoms, to which negative charges have become attached. Alternatively, the platform could be arranged to include a negatively charged surface at which chlorofluorocarbons, for instance, can dissociate after they come in contact with negative charges. Such an ion-propelled platform in the high troposphere or stratosphere could also be used for regional and/or global telecommunications.
US5915694 - Jun 29, 1999 Decoy utilizing infrared special material - An aerial decoy comprising a fuselage having forward and aft ends. Disposed within the fuselage are a plurality of decoy discs. Rotatably connected to the forward end of the fuselage is a ram air turbine which is cooperatively engaged to the decoy discs such that the rotation of the ram air turbine facilitates the dispensation of the decoy discs from the aft end of the fuselage.
5922976 - July 13, 1999 - Method of measuring aerosol particles using
automated mobility-classified aerosol detector
5949001 - September 7, 1999 - Method for aerodynamic particle size analysis
Oct 8, 1999 - Solar-powered airplane -
A Satellite Weather Modification System (SWMS) uses earth satellites to harness solar energy to modify the thermodynamics and composition of the earth's atmosphere. SWMS has three subsystems: The first subsystem includes a network of earth satellites called Satellite Engines (SEs) used to reflect solar energy and/or transform solar energy into other forms of energy beams discharged at specified locations. The media at these locations and the media through which the energy beams pass absorb these energies and change them into heat. The second subsystem includes a large network of Remote Sensing Devices (RSDs). These sensors are used to measure local media compositions, dynamic parameters and thermodynamic properties. Sensor measurements are fed back to the third subsystem, which includes a network of Ground Control Stations (GCSs). GCSs provide energy beam guidance by estimating each beam's characteristics and its aim point trajectory as functions of time. Integration of these three subsystems establishes a sensor feedback energy beam guidance and control loop. SWMS's weather modification applications include alteration of precipitation, reclaiming of wasteland, reducing damage by bad weather, and improving environment. Its non-weather related applications include supplying concentrated energy to electricity generating stations (solar, wind and hydro), high latitude greenhouse farms, and solar powered airplanes.
5984239 - November 16, 1999 - Weather modification by artificial satellite - Satellite Weather Modification System uses earth satellites to harness solar energy to modify the thermodynamics and composition of the earth's atmosphere
6030506 - February 29, 2000 - Preparation of independently generated
highly reactive chemical species
6045089 - April 4, 2000 - Solar-powered airplane - A Satellite Weather Modification System (SWMS) uses earth satellites to harness solar energy to modify the thermodynamics and composition of the earth's atmosphere.
6056203 - May 2, 2000 - Method and apparatus for modifying supercooled
clouds - actors controlling the effect of cloud seeding were critically examined, and a new horizontal penetration seeding method using liquid homogeneous ice nucleants at the lower level of the supercooled portion of clouds was invented to maximize the microphysics-dynamics interaction between the seeded ice crystal thermal and the supercooled cloud through optimal utilization of the phase change energy. Cloud seeding tests showed a remarkable effect. This method allows the development of twin rotating horizontal cylinders of ice crystal thermal, which slowly rise, expand and entrain the supercooled cloud droplets to provide the supersaturated condition and time for the required growth of seeded ice crystals. When the thermal reaches the top of the cloud, it spreads horizontally while lowering the ice crystals of sufficiently large size and fall velocity resulting in an effective treatment of the existing and induced cloud volume for precipitation augmentation and the associated dynamic effect.
6241160 - June 05 2001 - Atmospheric inversion layer de-stabilizer apparatus
6263744 - July 24, 2001 - Automated mobility-classified-aerosol detector - n aerosol detection system for measuring particle number distribution with respect to particle dimension in an aerosol sample. The system includes an alternating dual-bag sampler, a radially classified differential mobility analyzer, and a condensation nucleus counter. Pressure variations in sampling are compensated by feedback control of volumetric flow rates using a plurality of flow control elements.
6315213 - November 13, 2001 - Method of modifying weather - A method for artificially modifying the weather by seeding rain clouds of a storm with suitable cross-linked aqueous polymer. The polymer is dispersed into the cloud and the wind of the storm agitates the mixture causing the polymer to absorb the rain. This reaction forms a gelatinous substance which precipitate to the surface below. Thus, diminishing the clouds ability to rain.
6382526 - May 7, 2002 - Process and apparatus for the production of nanofibers - A process for forming nanofibers comprising the steps of feeding a fiber-forming material into an annular column, the column having an exit orifice, directing the fiber-forming material into an gas jet space, thereby forming an annular film of fiber-forming material, the annular film having an inner circumference, simultaneously forcing gas through a gas column, which is concentrically positioned within the annular column, and into the gas jet space, thereby causing the gas to contact the inner circumference of the annular film, and ejects the fiber-forming material from the exit orifice of the annular column in the form of a plurality of strands of fiber-forming material that solidify and form nanofibers having a diameter up to about 3,000 nanometers.
6408704 - June 25, 2002 - Aerodynamic particle size analysis method and
6412416 - July 2, 2002 - Propellant-based aerosol generation devices
and method Disclosed is an aerosol generating device comprising a cartridge containing a propellant. When ignited, propellant gases expand through a diffuser, then through and into a clearing pad and then through and into a filler area, thereby de-agglomerating and fluidizing the filler and increasing pressure until a frangible end seal on the retainer end of the cartridge ruptures and releases the filler as an aerosol cloud. (See diagram for this one in right column)
6520425 - February 18, 2003 - Process and apparatus for the production
of nanofibers (There are different applications written in this patent. Here is the part that pertains to jets spraying): advanced filters for aerosols or particles with nanometer scale dimensions, aerospace thermal management application, and sensors with fast response times to changes in temperature and chemical environment.
US6523478B1 -February 25, 2003 - Rifle-launched non-lethal cargo dispenser - - A rifle muzzle launched projectile having a launch tube defining an interior cavity, and having an opening at one end with an inner diameter sized to fit over the end of a rifle muzzle; a bullet trap located in the launch tube cavity; and a payload assembly mounted on the launch tube. The payload assembly is further configured for safely releasing a payload in a controlled manner. The payload assembly also includes a casing for retaining an aerosol composition; a propellant located in the casing; a primer for igniting the propellant; and a frangible portion of the casing in contact with the aerosol composition.
6575381 - June 10 2003 - Artificial snow producing and releasing apparatus and method thereof
6691926 - February 17 2004 - Turbo-fan snow making system
7290722 - December 15 2004 -Method and apparatus for making snow (this one is more for a local area using a tower rather than a jet).
6845919 - January 25 2005 - Apparatus for disturbing and removing electrons and protons from the atmosphere
US6890497B2 - May 10 2005 - Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide - A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.
7832657 - February 17 2006 - Apparatus for lowering water temperature of sea surface
WO2008062441A2 - September 07, 207 - Artificial rainmaking systems - A method for creating artificial rainfall is disclosed. The method comprises generating at least one high power intensity pulsed LASER; targeting the LASER onto a plurality of moisture bearing clouds for a predetermined time duration until artificial lightning is triggered; and causing a natural endothermic reaction resulting in condensation of vapour in said clouds due to the cooling effect of the endothermic reaction, resulting in precipitation.
8685254 - January 03 2008 -Water alteration structure applications and methods - A method is generally described which includes environmental alteration. The method includes determining a placement of at least one vessel capable of moving water to lower depths in the water via wave induced downwelling. The method also includes placing the at least one vessel in the determined placement. Further, the method includes generating movement of the water adjacent the surface of the water in response to the placing.
7413145B2 - August 19 2008 - Aerial delivery system -A method and apparatus for aerial fire suppression utilizing a potable fire retardant chemical dispensing system, readily adaptable, without extensive aircraft modification, to various makes of aircraft, for dispensing current types of forest and range fire fighting chemicals. The aerial delivery system is self contained and reusable. It enables cargo/utility aircraft to carry and dump a load, under control. The aerial delivery system is capable of attachment at the wing box, pressurized delivery from the nozzles, and nozzles directed straight downward.
7434524 - October 14 2008 -Machine to get rid of hurricanes - A machine and method of operation to get rid of hurricanes. The general idea is to get rid of the low pressure in the center of the hurricane. No low pressure equals no circulation. No circulation equals no hurricane. The machine is a ship consisting of two main parts, an upper part and a lower part. The lower part consists of four submersible torpedo shaped hulls. The upper part is V shaped with three fan tubes stacked vertically on each side of the V. Method of operation. The machine is placed in the hurricane eyewall near the hurricane eye. The machine would mechanically blow air from the eyewall to the eye. The machine would bend the eyewall so that the eyewall would be diverted into the eye. The machine would slow down the air in the eyewall and the low pressure in the eye would suck the air in.
US7520237B1 - April 21 2009 - Hurricane prevention system and method for use in ocean water is provided including a buoyant platform on which is disposed a wind-driven power source, a water-moving system, and a water-dispersing system. The wind-driven power source is configured to use wind energy to power the water-moving system, which is configured to transport water from somewhat deeper ocean water levels to, or near, the level of the ocean. The water-dispersing system is preferably configured to disperse the water from the water-moving system to an area at or near the sea surface. The buoyant platform preferably is anchored by a mooring system. The hurricane prevention system and method is designed to bring cooler water from deeper in the ocean to or near the ocean surface and to disperse that cooler water in that area to reduce the sea surface temperature, thereby preventing or inhibiting the formation of hurricanes.
7536967 - May 26 2009 -Marine water conversion - This invention provides marine water conversion apparatus and a method for reducing the surface temperature of a part of the ocean where the surface temperature has reached, or is close to reaching, a level that is conducive to the formation of hurricanes. A floating apparatus is provided with large pumps which transfer a high volume of surface water several hundred feet below the ocean surface via a tube thereby creating a lava lamp effect body of warm water assisting cooler water below the removed surface water to rise to the surface. The apparatus is equipped with remotely controllable propulsion equipment for selectively positioning the apparatus geographically in the ocean through use of remote controls with a global positioning system.
7655193B1 - February 2 2010 - Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide
7798419 - September 21 2010 - Method of and a device for the reduction of tropical cyclones destructive force - A method and device for suppressing the destructive force of a tropical cyclone, wherein the ascendant speed of wind in the eyewall of a cyclone is reduced by sea water pumped on-site from under the sea surface to above the surface, and then dispensed in the wind at the bottom of the cyclone in/near its eyewall.
7810420 - October 12 2010 -Method of interrupting a tornado - The method of interrupting a tornado comprises the step of locating an area of ongoing tornadic activity. Ultra-cold substance is then released at low altitudes in the area of ongoing tornadic activity. In preferred embodiments, the ultra-cold substance is delivered to the area of ongoing tornadic activity by an airplane. The ultra-cold substance is preferably liquid nitrogen.
7965488B2 - Jun 21 2011 - Methods of removing aerosols from the atmosphere - An antenna is disclosed to efficiently ionize the atmosphere for the purpose of reducing the aerosol counts, and therefore the number of poluted particles in suspension in the atmosphere, by deposition to ground. The antenna includes peripheral nodes and a central node. Each of the peripheral nodes is connected to adjacent peripheral nodes through peripheral spokes. The peripheral nodes are also connected to the central node through radial spokes. Electric power is applied to the peripheral spokes and the radial spokes causing the antenna to charge the atmosphere through the emission of ions. The antenna minimizes an attenuation factor that reduces ionization efficiency and reduces the land requirements for its installation.
8012453B2 - September 6 2011 - Carbon sequestration and production of hydrogen and hydride - This invention describes a complete sequestration of carbon (CO2 and CO) from coal burning plants. In this process, hydrogen can be generated which in turn permits the reduction in the cost of hydride synthesis. The hydrides store hydrogen for on-board application for automobiles and fuel cells. Hydrogen generation and synthesis of hydrides is accomplished by using an integrated approach in which coal is used as a fuel and carbon is sequestered in the process. The CO and or CO2 produced in coal burning power plants and the heat is used when available for producing hydrogen and hydrides. Carbon is used both as a reactant and as a fuel. Economically hydrogen production cost is comparable to or less than the current price of hydrogen produced from fossil-fuel with the added benefit of carbon sequestration and reducing global warming. Specific processes for synthesizing important hydrogen storage materials, hydrides are described. A hydrogen based automobile becomes viable as the cost of the hydrogen production and hydride synthesis is reduced. Although coal-burning power plant is specified here, any power plant, coal- or natural gas-burning, can be subjected to similar treatment.
CA2661199C - October 18 2011 - Charged seed cloud as a method for increasing particle collisions and for scavenging airborne biological agents and other contaminants - A system (10) and method is provided for increasing interaction between seed particles (200) in a seed cloud (210) and target particles to be neutralized, detected or knocked down to the ground. This is achieved by applying a charge to the seed particles so that the seed cloud formed by release of the seed particles at altitude is highly charged, which in turn produces a strong electric field between the seed cloud and ground. The relatively strong electric field causes the seed particles to move downward (toward the ground) at a velocity sufficient to increase interaction (collisions) between the seed particles and the target particles.
8048309B2 - November 1 2011 - Seawater-based carbon dioxide disposal - A method for disposing of carbon dioxide is provided. According to the invention, CO2 is dissolved in seawater and the salinity of the seawater is increased to produce CO2-containing brine. The CO2-containing brine is denser than the seawater from which it is made. Therefore, when it is released into the ocean, the CO2-containing brine sinks to depth and sequesters the carbon dioxide. The brine may be produced by forming CO2 hydrate, which extracts fresh water from the seawater. Alternatively, the brine may be produced by forming water ice from the seawater and injecting CO2 into the seawater either before or, more preferably, after the water ice has been formed.
US20100314496A1 - December 20 2011 - Enhanced aerial delivery system - An enhanced aerial delivery system addresses issues raised when large quantities of fluids, powders, and other agent materials are to be transported in and aerially dispersed by aircraft. Some aspects include positioning and securing of tanks aboard the aircraft to facilitate management and safety of the tanks and aircraft. Other aspects address coupling of the tanks and associated piping to lessen structural effects upon the aircraft. Further aspects deal with channeling, containing, and dumping stray agent materials that have escaped from the agent tanks on board the aircraft. (Diagram in right-hand column)
8148840 - April 03 2012 - Ocean wind water pump for de-energizing a storm - An engine for reducing the temperature at the surface of a body of water during a storm includes at least one floatation member for supporting the engine, an elongate tube mounted on the floatation member configured to receive a stream of air therethrough, the elongate tube having first and second ends, a constricted center section therebetween and means for distributing water into the tube adjacent the constricted center section, a wind turbine having at least one rotor, a differential and a shaft connecting the rotor to the differential, a pump operatively connected to the wind turbine and extending into the body of water to a depth where the temperature of the water is less the water temperature at the surface and wherein water from beneath the surface of the body of water is pumped into the manifold and distributed into the elongate tube to cool the stream of air.
US8256988B1- April 9 2012 - Hurricane taming apparatus and method of use - An apparatus and method for disrupting a hurricane are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a plurality of interconnected slabs. The slabs are connected using a series of cables. Cushions placed between the slabs prevent damage to the slabs during use. In practice, the interconnected slabs are towed to a position in the anticipated path of a hurricane. Once the interconnected slabs are positioned at a pre-determined location within the hurricane, they are maneuvered with the hurricane such their position remains generally fixed relative to the hurricane. The slabs form a partial barrier between the ocean and atmosphere thereby interfering with the critical mechanics, namely the rise of warm, moist air, of hurricane formation. The interconnected slabs are maneuvered with the hurricane for extended time periods such that they constantly disrupt the mechanics of hurricane formation.
8152091B2 - April 10 2012 - Production or distribution of radiative forcing agents - Embodiments of methods, apparatuses, and systems associated with producing and distributing one or more radiative forcing agents to Earth's atmosphere are disclosed.
8262314 - September 11 2012 - Method for decreasing the intensity and frequency of tropical storms or hurricanes - Modification of tropical storms or hurricanes by mixing the upper layer of a section of a body of water with water from a lower section of the body of water. Rapidly mixing the warmer upper layer with the cooler lower layer cools the surface of the water, thereby reducing the amount of heat energy available to fuel the intensity and movement of storms. By cooling selected sections of water, the frequency, intensity or direction of storms may be altered. In one embodiment of the invention, a bluff shaped object is attached to a submarine to facilitate rapid mixing of the upper and lower layers of the body of water.
8439278 - May 14 2013 - Apparatus for producing a mass of water vapor, apparatus for producing, moving and climbing a mass of water vapor, and method of causing artificial stimulation of rain - An apparatus for producing a mass of water vapor includes a water film maker and a device which prevents the water film maker from drifting. The water film maker floats on a surface of a water source and absorbs water of the water source by virtue of a capillary mechanism or a moisture-holding ability to make a thin water film on a surface of the water film maker. The thin water film is exposed to sunlight. The water film maker comprises a first hollow body capable of being filled with air, and a sheet having said capillary mechanism or having said moisture-holding ability, said sheet covering said first hollow body. Water in the thin water film is vaporized by sunlight energy to thereby produce a mass of water vapor in the sky.
US20120286096A1 -July 9 2013 Aerial Delivery Device Systems and Methods - PDF: Aerial Delivery Device Systems & Methods - US 2012/0286096A1
CN102007680B - January 8th 2014 - Electro-hydrodynamic wind energy system - A system for electro-hydrodynamically extracting energy from wind includes an upstream collector that is biased at an electric potential and induces an electric field. An injector introduces a particle into the electric field. The wind drag on the particle is at least partially opposed by a force of the electric field on the particle. A sensor monitors an ambient atmospheric condition, and a controller changes a parameter of the injector in response to a change in the atmospheric conditions
8702982B2 - April 22 2014 - Water alteration structure and system - A system is described generally for providing a structure or structures for altering water surface temperature. The system includes a holding vessel configured to hold water. The holding vessel has at least one wall coupled to a lowermost portion. The at least one wall extends above the water level and the lowermost portion is configured to be submerged. At least one conduit extends from the lower side of the holding vessel. The at least one conduit has a length extending to a depth at which a property of water at the depth is substantially different from that of the water at the surface.
CN102007680B - August 1st 2014 - Electro-hydrodynamic wind energy system - A system for electro-hydrodynamically extracting energy from wind includes an upstream collector that is biased at an electric potential and induces an electric field. An injector introduces a particle into the electric field. The wind drag on the particle is at least partially opposed by a force of the electric field on the particle. A sensor monitors an ambient atmospheric condition, and a controller changes a parameter of the injector in response to a change in the atmospheric condition.
CN203827813U - September 17 2014 - Novel artificial weather influencing system - The utility model discloses a novel artificial weather influencing system. Meteorological environment data can be collected in a specified detection area through a pilotless aircraft; when it is determined that cloud-seeding operations can be carried out according to the meteorological environment data, the pilotless aircraft is controlled to ignite or scatter articles carried by the pilotless aircraft and used for artificial precipitation in the detection area. Compared with the prior art, due to the fact that the system does not need to be controlled manually by a pilot, labor resources cannot be much wasted in the artificial precipitation operation process. Meanwhile, a ground artificial precipitation subsystem serves as an effective addition for the pilotless aircraft to achieve the artificial precipitation operations, and accordingly the novel artificial weather influencing system can be used for completing the artificial precipitation operations through different artificial precipitation ways, and the success rate of the artificial precipitation operations is improved.
RU2530912C2 - October 20 2014 - Anti-hurricane technical device - SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of atmospheric phenomena control, in particular to devices for controlling hurricanes. The anti-hurricane technical device changes the air pressure in front and behind the incipient hurricane. For air intake before the incipient hurricane and pumping it into the area behind the hurricane the device has a flexible tube with compressors. The compressors pump air through the tube. The tube floats on the water surface, being partially in the submerged state. Both ends of the tube are secured to the ships-tugs. The ships-tugs pull the tube and, consequently, the hurricane in the desired direction and their location regulates the distance between the air inlet and outlet due to the bending of the tube.
EFFECT: enhanced efficacy of controlling hurricanes is provided.
8899495 - December 02 2014 - Mist generating system
8939381 - January 27 2015 - Fog removal system - Disclosed is a fog removal system which can blow dry air onto roads, airport runways, harbors, or into coastal areas in which fog regularly occurs to reduce the relative humidity of atmospheric air down from about 100%, to thereby remove the fog. Particularly, in the fog removal system, a heating unit and a blowing unit may be connected to areas such as roads, airport runways, harbors, or coastal areas in which fog regularly occurs, to blow dry air generated in the heating unit over a long range using a strong blowing pressure from the blowing unit.
9927205 - February 13 2015 - Vortex ring-producing gun with recoiling nozzle - A vortex ring producing gun includes a body defining a first interior volume. The vortex ring producing gun includes a movable nozzle coupled with the body, comprising at least one nozzle opening, and defining a second interior volume. The vortex ring producing gun includes one or more conduits providing fluid communication between said first interior volume and said second interior volume. The vortex ring producing gun includes an energy storage element configured to bias the movable nozzle in a first direction. The vortex ring producing gun includes a latching key configured to hold the movable nozzle in a retained position against the bias from the energy storage element. The vortex ring producing gun includes a movable cocking/firing element configured to interact with the body, the energy storage element, the latching key, and the movable nozzle to selectively cock or fire the vortex ring-producing gun.
9078402 - July 14 2015 - System and method for decreasing the intensity and frequency of tropical storms or hurricanes - Submarines are provided with bluff-shaped surfaces and/or fins used for modification of tropical storms or hurricanes by mixing the upper layer of a section of a body of water with water from a lower section of the body of water. By coordinating a number of submarines to traverse a region of a tropical storm or ahead of a hurricane the cooled water reduces the amount of heat energy available to fuel the intensity and movement of storms. A perforated plate of approximately 100 m×100 m is used, with or without fins, to mix layers of water by creating sufficient turbulence to create eddies up to 50 m. Submarines are used to entrain fluid motion to induce anti-cyclonic vorticity in the body of water.
9452234 - September 27 2016 - Method and system for switching between packages in a diffusion device based on a liquid level sensor
9491912 - November 15 2016 -Automated wide-ranging anti-hail protection method and a network - Automated wide-ranging anti-hail protection method and a network
- The present invention relates to hail warning and prevention. An automated method of wide-ranging anti-hail protection including reception of sky proper radiothermal emission in M sites, its comparison with corresponding thresholds, generation command signals to detonate combustible gas and to direct shock waves upwardly to the sky, generation and transmission alert signals, reception of transmitted alert signals in each M sites, comparison with proper code-signals of that site and setting alert operational mode of sonic generator. An automated network of anti-hail protection including M hail preventing sonic set in M sites of anti-hail protection area any of which comprises an antenna, a radiometric receiver, a controlled compensation device, a controlled multi-channel threshold system, a warner a transmitter, a receiver, a code-signal comparison device, a first controlling switcher, a controlled single-channel thresholder and a second controlling switcher. It is enhanced operation efficiency and is automated exploitation of an anti-hail protection network.
20140145002A1 - December 7 2016 - System for facilitating cloud formation and cloud precipitation - A system for facilitating cloud formation and cloud precipitation includes a controller and a beam emitter that is responsive to the controller. The beam emitter is configured to emit a beam to form charged particles within an atmospheric zone containing water vapor. The charged particles enhance the formation of cloud condensation nuclei such that water vapor condenses on the cloud condensation nuclei forming cloud droplets. The system further includes a sensor configured to detect a cloud status and output a signal corresponding to the cloud status to the controller.
9526216 - December 27 2016 - System for facilitating cloud formation and cloud precipitation - A system for facilitating cloud formation and cloud precipitation includes a controller and a beam emitter that is responsive to the controller. The beam emitter is configured to emit a beam to form charged particles within an atmospheric zone containing water vapor. The charged particles enhance the formation of cloud condensation nuclei such that water vapor condenses on the cloud condensation nuclei forming cloud droplets. The system further includes a sensor configured to detect a cloud status and output a signal corresponding to the cloud status to the controller.
9624917 - April 18 2017 - Hurricane dissipation system and method - The present invention concerns itself with systems and methods for the dissipation of hurricanes and/or tropical storms through the use of wind turbine pumps. These pumps, which are driven by the storm's own winds, draw cold deeper water from below the storm and spray it high into the air. This cold spray absorbs the heat energy from the air thus removing the driving force (the heat energy) from the hurricane. The spray also acts as a brake on wind speed. Hence, by using a series of these wind turbine pumps acting in cohesion, dissipation of hurricanes and/or tropical storms may be achieved.
9772134 - September 26 2017 - Dual auto hydrant for snowmaking gun and method of using same - The invention is a dual auto hydrant configured to interface independent pressurized water and compressed air sources with snowmaking equipment, such as a snowmaking gun and methods of using same.
9883638 - February 6 2018 - Method and device of weakening tornado - The field of this invention is tornado disaster. This invention proposes a method of weakening tornado, the contents are as follows: A. provide Provide plenty of non-fixed turbolators, called free turbolators; B. Provide plenty of turbolators fixed on free ropes, called free turbolator strings; C. Provide plenty of turbolators fixed on ropes installed on storage boxes at lease in one spot, called swinging turbolator strings; D. Install free turbolators, free turbolator strings and swinging turbolator strings, in order to reduce energy of tornado cyclone. On the other hand, this invention also proposes a device for weakening tornado based on the above method, the contents are as follows: there are free turbolators, free turbolator strings and swinging turbolator strings which are installed in proper areas. This invention is for reducing tornado energy, and even interrupting tornado.
9926209 - March 27 2018 - Method for on-site aerial dissemination and atmospheric disposal or “aerosolization” of the water component of all leachates and wastewaters - Mmethod for on-site aerial dissemination of Oxidatively Converted particles of contamination with substantial atmospheric disposal, commonly known as aerosolization, of the water component of all untreated or partially treated leachates and all untreated or partially treated wastewaters. These leachates and wastewaters (defined as water containing 2 or more detectable and known contaminants) are collected on site and the defined leachate or defined wastewater, having multiple defined and known contaminating suspended and perhaps precipitated solids therein, and aerially disseminating or aerially oxidizing or commonly known aerosolizing said contaminants over a chosen contaminant collections area (defined as 1-300 meters from the nozzles) and disposing of the water component of the leachate or wastewater through atmospheric disposal and lastly evaporation on the site of the leachate or wastewaters' generation.
10105633 - October 23 2018 - A sensor-based motion control fugitive dust suppression system - comprises: a laser pointer provided on a frame to conduct a setting operation such that directions of a plurality of mist spray injection nozzles provided on a blast pipe located inside the frame correspond to the front end of a chisel of a hydraulic breaker; a data logger for collecting, from a sensor provided at the crushing apparatus, location source information for a hitting impact point of the hitting part; a location information processing unit analyzing the location source information collected from the data logger so as to generate the location information on the hitting impact point of the hitting part; and a system control unit for outputting a control signal so as to control a driving unit rotating the blast pipe in a vertical or horizontal direction, according to the location source information.
10159951 - December 25 2018 - FCC feed injector with improved atomization - Method and an apparatus for mixing and atomizing a hydrocarbon stream using a diluent/dispersion stream
Application #20190265387 - Aug 29, 2019 - SURFACE MODIFICATION CONTROL STATIONS AND METHODS IN A GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ARRAY FOR DYNAMICALLY ADJUSTING THE ATMOSPHERIC, TERRESTRIAL AND OCEANIC PROPERTIES - "The control stations modify the humidity, currents, wind flows and heat removal rate of the surface and facilitate cooling and control of large area of global surface temperatures. This global system is made of arrays of multiple sub-systems that monitor climate and act locally on weather with dynamically generated local forcing & perturbations for guiding in a controlled manner aim at long-term modifications. The machineries are part of a large-scale system consisting of an array of many such machines put across the globe at locations called the control stations. These are then used in a coordinated manner to modify large area weather and the global climate as desired...."
In the document, Contracts for Weather Control, you'll see on the bottom of page 13 how that HAARP disperses storms and can create winds up to 70 mph.
You can also find pictoral examples of cloud drying/moisture absorbent aerosols on this new page Stopping Rain.
Artificial Lightning: Laser Triggers Electrical Activity In Thunderstorm For The First Time
High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating by Fran De Aquino, Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.
Enhanced surface warming and accelerated snow melt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau induced by absorbing aerosols - by iopscience.org